Bibliography

The Odyssey, the Koran, The Torah, the Bible and comics books all these text share some very basic characteristics. They all present ideas and ideals in the form of stories, and these stories all create mythologies. John V West discuss how comics and religion share the creation of mythology, he address how in both the comic world and the religious world during trying times a hero is always sacrificed. West suggest this happens in order to be an example for the righteous, He Compares the death of Captain Americas an American Icon to the death of Christina Leader  Jesus Christ.  West suggest this as an example of how Comics books borrow stories from biblical text, in this case taking the greatest martyr of all time (Christ) and swapping in Captain America. The article suggests the possibility of resurrection for Captain America as well, which does happen later in his comic book life where he then takes on a role of far greater importance.

When a Hero Dies

How comics borrow stories from the bible and makes for great myths.

Vest, John. “When a Hero Dies .” Sightings (2007): n. pag. Web. 4 May 2011. <http://divinity.uchicago.edu/martycenter/publications/sightings/archive_2007/0607.shtml>.

Jesse T Moore’s article The Education of Green Lantern: culture and ideology discusses the creation and development of two comics book characters the green lantern and the green arrow. Moore looks at one of the writers for these comics’ series and identifies a close connection to the writer’s ideologies. He states that Dennis O’Neil, a self identified liberal was one of the first comic book writers to use the comic for reasons beyond entertainment. O’Neil used comic books as his persona podium, where he tackled all issues from racisms, violence, political corruption, and even religion. O’Neil took these two characters Green Lantern and Green Arrow and gave them new life giving them personalities ideals and removing them from their original generic forms. The article suggests that before O’Neil gave these characters voices they were not very popular which lead to a short run for their comics. “ In brightest day. In blackest night, No evil shall escape my sight let those who worships evil’s might beware my power green lantern light!” Moore the suggested that the creator of the comic book looked at light (The powers of the green lantern) in a biblical sense, he suggests that evil cannot survive in light Granting the Green lantern a great level of power as a Hero.

Moore’s identification on how comic books transcend their original use of entertainment to become a platform for ideological and social issue speaks greatly of the power of the comics book. O’Neil revitalizations of the two characters, granting them beliefs and ideologies takes them from mediocrity to sensations and creates the question what makes a hero great.

Moore, Jesse T. “The Education of Green Lantern: Culture and Ideology .” Journal of American Cultur26.2 (2003): 263-278. Web. 4 May 2011. <http://divinity.uchicago.edu/martycenter/publications/sightings/archive_2007/0607.shtml>.

‘Who Watches the Watchmen?’’:Ideology and ‘‘Real World’’ Superheroes

Jamie A. Hughes breaks down the Watchmen, one of three graphic novels he believes changed the comic book experience. Huges suggest that the graphic novels the Dark Knight Returns, Maus, and Watchmen remove themselves from the classic comic book matrix by confronting reality, he suggest that these graphic novel made the largest social impacts because of the ideologies they focused on. In his article Hughes dissects each character in the Watchmen and explains their design and how each of them fulfill a certain part of the social constructs of life based heavily on a possible reality.

In the early portion of Hughes article he makes a comment on how comics books have handle religion and ideologies “ no superheroes fight crime or the forces of evil because they believe God is on ‘‘their side.’’ this statement presents the question of why give these fictional characters faith’s or beliefs, what role could a belief system play into these characters and how they connect with readers. Combined with the break down of the characters in Watchmen and the statement on how comic books have used religion its Hughes has forces reader to look past the page and further into what each image and symbol means.

Huges, Jamie A. “”Who Watches the Watchmen?”: Ideology and “Real Word” Superheroes.” Journal of Popular Culture 39.4 (2006): 546. Web. 2 May 2011. http://faculty.winthrop.edu/kosterj/WRIT501/readings/HughesWhoWatchesWatchmen.pdf

“The Man on the White Horse”: Avenging-Angel Figures in US Culture and Politics by Michael Ray Fitzgerald. The idea of white hats and black hats has been used to explain the hero, and villain good, and evil for decades, this idea  may have made its most significant impact during the rise of the western but the idea for light vs. dark is far older. Fitzgerald article primarily discusses The Lone Ranger and describes the ranger as the archetype for most modern comic book hero’s. He picks apart certain ideas and ideals that The Lone Ranger was meant to represent and compares the ranger at one point to a Christ descending from heaven’s riding a white horse from the book of revelation.

Fitzgerald, Michael Ray . “The Man on the White Horse”: Avenging-Angel Figures in US Culture and Politics .” Journal of Popular Culture(forthcoming): 1-22. Web. 4 May 2011. <http://reading.academia.edu/MichaelRayFitzgerald/Papers/447253/_The_Man_on_the_White_Horse_Avenging-Angel_Figures_in_US_Culture_and_Politics>.

Superman as Christ-Figure: The American Pop Culture Movie Messiah By Anton Karl Kozlovic. He walked on water , he could fly , he could raise the dead , he’s faster than a speeding bullet, Anton Karl Kozlovic identified these to mythological characters, as beacon’s of hope and he broke down how  the films Superman I & II were based on the life of the real life superman Jesus Christ. taking their stories  When we look for look at something long enough you are bound to see what you wanted to see. Anton Karl Kozloivc on the other hand was fortunate that what he saw in the Superman films looked for may have actually been there.  Find able to find connects

Stucky, Mark D. “The Superhero’s Mythic Journey: Death and the Heroic Cycle in Superman.” Journal of Religion and Film 10.2 (2006): n. pag. Web. 4 May 2011. <http://www.unomaha.edu/jrf/Vol10No2/Stucky_Superman.htm>.

Books

In every comic book if you look closely you are being preached to, it may not be  directly from a pulpit but the issue and ideas express are all usually of reality. The comic book can be viewed as a time capsule for the issues of society and ideals society, because it focuses on the events around the time period.  From character being created to fight wars  to those meant to represent the ideal man and  others to display the potential of man .The Gospel According to Superheroes: Religion and Popular Culture by ed. B.J. Oropeza is  takes a look at the different eras in the comic book industry, as well as several of the more identifiable comic book characters  such as batman  and explains how these the effect religion affected them during the time .

Oropeza, B.J. The Gospel According to Superheros. Peter Lang, 2006. Print.

How we use media has always been in question, what stories we chooses to tell and how we chooses to tell them. But how media is transferred from one area to the next can also be an issue, can a story maintain its integrity when is goes from film to television or even from book to comic book.

The section of the book talks about the use of comic books to tell religious tales. The book talks about how printed media specifically has been used to transforming religion over the centuries since Gutenberg created it.

Lloyd, Charles. Religion and the Culture of Print in Modern America. Univ of Wisconsin Pr, 2008. 24-28. Print.

There is fact and then there is fiction, but all things we read are stories, unless we experience them our selves. In every story  we are introduce to new characters and these characters perform feats that we have experienced ourselves or wish we could achieve. But what do we know about these characters, are we meant to learn from them or are they just their to entertain us? In Holy Superheroes! Revised and Expanded Edition: Exploring the Sacred in Comics, Graphic Novels, and Film, takes a look at the messages that are sold and told using popular forms of entertainment and the comic book heroes that have become part of  our mythos.

Garret, Greg. Holy Superheroes! Revised and Expanded Edition: Exploring the Sacred in Comics, Graphic Novels, and Film. Expanded edition. Westminster John Knox Press, 2008. Print.

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